Brendan Bowler of the University of Texas Austin said: “We don’t know much about thisGiant planetHow it is made “This planetary system provides us with the first testimony of how the planets accrue. Our results open a new field for this research.”
Although astronomers have so far listed more than 4,000 exoplanets, so far, telescopes have mimicked only about 15 exoplanets. The planets are so far and small, they are usually just one point in a clear picture.
The research team used Hubble’s latest technology to directly image the planet, opening a new path for further exoplanet research, particularly during the planet’s creation period.
This giant exoplanet is designated PDS70B, orbiting the orange dwarf PDS70. The orange dwarf is known as two forming planets in a huge stellar disk surrounded by dust and gas. This system is located in the constellation Centaurus, 370 light years away from Earth.
“This system is so exciting because we can build a planet,” said Zhou Yifan of the University of Texas at Austin. Million years, the planet is still absorbing material and accumulating mass.
Hubble’s sensitivity to ultraviolet light has a unique ability to observe radiation generated by extremely hot gases falling on the planet.
“Hubble’s observations allow us to estimate the speed at which the mass of the planets increases.” Zhou Zhoufan said.
Adding ultraviolet observations, the research team directly measured the planet’s mass growth rate for the first time. In about five million years, the planet has reached five times the mass of Jupiter. The current measured accretion rate declines sharply: if this accretion rate remains the same for about one million years, the planet will only increase to about 1/100 of Jupiter’s mass.
Fan and Baller on Monday emphasized that these observations are only data over a short period of time, and that more data is needed to determine whether the rate of planetary accretion mass is increasing or decreasing. “Our measurements indicate that the planet is at the end of its formation.”
The Young PDS70 system is filled with primitive dust disks, which can provide fuel for planetary growth throughout the system. Planet PDS70B is surrounded by its own disk of gas and dust, sucking up material from the massive stellar dust disk. The research team hypothesized that magnetic field lines extend from the outer planetary disk to the atmosphere of the exoplanet, and funnel the matter up to the planet’s surface.
“If this material enters the planet from a disk of dust, locally hot spots will appear.” Zhou Yifan explained, “These hot spots can be at least 10 times warmer than the Earth.”
These areas will glow violently under ultraviolet light.
These observations provide clues about our giant Sun planet that formed around our Sun 4.6 billion years ago. Jupiter may have been formed by the accumulation of matter disks falling around it. Its main satellite will also be made from the residue in the dish.
The results of this new study will be published in the Astronomical Journal on 29 April 2021.
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